Categories
Uncategorized

Dhanurveda….

Dhanurveda, science of fighting and war, is one of the Upavedas connected to Yajur Veda. It is mentioned also in Rig Veda 6.75.2 as Dhanav Vidya concerning bow and arrows, which are symbols of all weapons and missiles. All these weapons are to be used if absolutely necessary when all other peaceful and righteous methods have failed; to defend those who follow the varnashrama system when evil persons create obstructions in the spread of Vedic knowledge.

Dhanurveda was revealed by the Lord to sages Vishvamitra and Bhrigu, its original teachers. Another famous Dhanurveda teachers in Vedic times were Parashurama and Drona. They are prominent characters in classical epic Mahabharata, story of conflict among various kshatriya (warrior) lineages. Dhanurveda is considered the origin of Vajramushti, an empty-handed Indian martial art. Among ancient versions of Vedic martial arts derived from Dhanurveda belong Thang-ta (in Manipur, East India) and Kalaripayat, or Kalaripayattu (in Kerala, South India).

“Ranganiketan performances give samples of the music, dance, and martial arts of northeastern India. Thang-ta is a weapons-oriented form of martial arts that dates from the time of the Mahabharata. Both men and women learn these arts from an early age. With precision and strength, Ranganiketan artists demonstrate the various forms of Thang-ta, using swords, shields, scimitars, and occasionally their bare hands.”

Categories
Uncategorized

History of Vaccines…….

Edward Jenner, born in mid-18th century England, would eventually become one of the most famous scientists in medical history and the so-named “Father of Immunology.” After observing that cowpox infection seemed to protect humans against smallpox, Jenner inoculated an eight-year-old boy with cowpox matter from a blister on the hand of an English milkmaid. He then repeatedly attempted to “challenge” the cowpox inoculation by exposing the boy to smallpox material—but the boy never fell ill. Jenner had demonstrated smallpox immunization.

Jenner’s method of vaccination against smallpox grew in popularity and eventually replaced variolation, which had been the standard before his demonstration. In the latter part of the 20th century, about 150 years after Jenner’s death in 1823, smallpox would be making its last gasps. It would eventually be eradicated after a massive surveillance and vaccination program—thanks largely to the initial efforts of the Father of Immunology.

Categories
Uncategorized

What Was Galileo Famous For? …..

Galileo’s laws of motion, made from his measurements that all bodies accelerate at the same rate regardless of their mass or size, paved the way for the codification of classical mechanics by Isaac Newton. Galileo’s heliocentrism (with modifications by Kepler) soon became accepted scientific fact. His inventions, from compasses and balances to improved telescopes and microscopes, revolutionized astronomy and biology. Galilleo discovered craters and mountains on the moon, the phases of Venus, Jupiter’s moons and the stars of the Milky Way. His penchant for thoughtful and inventive experimentation pushed the scientific method toward its modern form.

In his conflict with the Church, Galileo was also largely vindicated. Enlightenment thinkers like Voltaire used tales of his trial (often in simplified and exaggerated form) to portray Galileo as a martyr for objectivity. Recent scholarship suggests Galileo’s actual trial and punishment were as much a matter of courtly intrigue and philosophical minutiae as of inherent tension between religion and science.

In 1744 Galileo’s “Dialogue” was removed from the Church’s list of banned books, and in the 20th century Popes Pius XII and John Paul II made official statements of regret for how the Church had treated Galileo